A type of microelectronic circuit in which the base material is positively charged. system menu. Implies the excessive use of GOTO instructions. A value assigned automatically if one is not given by the user. Project in this context is a generic term. See: traceability, traceability analysis. (IEEE) The hardware, software, and firmware used to perform a software engineering effort. A type of list used in text boxes and editable drop-down lists in which the likely input can be extrapolated and populated automatically from having been entered previously. (FDA) Establishing confidence that the process is effective and reproducible. testing, parallel. A type of wizard page in which users commit to performing the task. Chips which may be programmed by using a PROM programming device. From Control Panel, users can click individual items to configure system-level features and perform related tasks. Detailed descriptions of imaginary people. A device which takes information from any of several sources and places it on a single line or sends it to a single destination. exception. Contrast with demodulate. Removed in Windows 7. interface analysis. A modeless secondary window that displays a toolbar or other choices, such as colors, patterns, fonts, or font attributes. gigabyte. Ymodem-G transmits without acknowledgement [for error-free channels or when modems are self correcting], but transmission is cancelled upon any error. Test data is useful only if the methods and results are adequately specific. state. For example, COLOR_WINDOW defines the window background color and COLOR_WINDOWTEXT defines the window text color. compact disc - read only memory. See: waterfall model. Syn: path coverage. (IEEE) Documentation specifying the details of the test approach for a software feature or combination of software features and identifying the associated tests. (IEEE) A document reporting on any event that occurs during testing that requires further investigation. A record is a component of a database. bandwidth, as well as by its actual lower and upper limits; e.g., a 10 MHz band in the 100 to 110 MHz range. state diagram. See: software reliability. A measure of reliability, giving the average time before the first failure. A programmable logic chip. See: bomb, trojan horse, virus. ITU-TSS. Contrast with conversational, interactive, on-line, real time. A testing technique using input values that seem likely to cause program errors; e.g., "0", "1", NULL, empty string. (IEEE) A diagram that identifies the modules in a system or computer program and shows which modules call one another. (IEEE) Standards that describe the characteristics of a design or a design description of data or program components. I will try to post a new article every week with a deviation of +2/-2 days. 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017. firmware. Contrast with constant. parallel. menu. See also: primary window. trace. The process of determining the value of some quantity in terms of a standard unit. (NIST) A logical expression specifying a program state that must exist or a set of conditions that program variables must satisfy at a particular point during program execution. (1) (ISO) A sequence of instructions suitable for processing. system administrator. metal-oxide semiconductor. It holds the programs and data that are shared by all users. In contrast with protected administrators, standard users can't elevate themselves. (2) (ISO) A graphical representation in which symbols are used to represent such things as operations, data, flow direction, and equipment, for the definition, analysis, or solution of a problem. workaround. testing, special case. configurable, off-the-shelf software. (IEEE) A change made directly to an object program without reassembling or recompiling from the source program. (IEEE) (1) A record of the execution of a computer program, showing the sequence of instructions executed, the names and values of variables, or both. (IEEE) A software tool that estimates or measures the execution time of a computer program or portion of a computer program, either by summing the execution times of the instructions along specified paths or by inserting probes at specified points in the program and measuring the execution time between probes. (IEEE) A quantitative assessment of the degree to which a software product or process possesses a given attribute. This symbol is used to describe the size of computer memory or disk storage space. (2) A value which lies at, or just inside or just outside a specified range of valid input and output values. (2) (IEEE) Testing conducted to verify the implementation of the design for one software element; e.g., a unit or module; or a collection of software elements. (IEEE) The degree to which software is free from faults in its specification, design and coding. Contrast with batch. It will facilitate consistency in describing the requirements of the law and regulations applicable to such products and systems. The practice of "hiding" the details of a function or structure, making them inaccessible to other parts of the program. See: boundary value analysis; testing, stress. In control panel items, spoke pages are the place in which users perform tasks. The concept involves the specification of the connection of two devices having different functions. nonincremental integration. Later versions use the more effective CRC method. testability. 4.2.2! For example, Windows Photo Gallery displays the picture name, file type, date taken, tags, rating, dimensions, and file size. The software design description is used as a medium for communicating software design information, and may be thought of as a blueprint or model of the system. A program used to perform a related set of user tasks; often relatively complex and sophisticated. For example, a text box that has input constraints might display a balloon to let the user know of these limitations. The bit is the basic unit of digital data. Note: This term is defined differently in various programming languages. Contrast with testing, branch; testing, path; branch coverage; condition coverage; decision coverage; multiple condition coverage; path coverage. (DOD) An assessment of the consequence of the worst credible mishap that could be caused by a specific hazard. (NIST) Translating a program expressed in an assembly language into object code. A fast-response [immediate response] on-line system which obtains data from an activity or a physical process, performs computations, and returns a response rapidly enough to affect [control] the outcome of the activity or process; e.g., a process control application. microcomputer. Understanding systems and how they work is critical to understanding systems analysis and design. RS-232-C. An Electronic Industries Association (EIA) standard for connecting electronic equipment. test design. Permissible digits are "0" and "1". stub. Instructor Guide (Facilitator Guide) The resource that is used by the facilitator to lead the instruction; can be either printed or electronic, such as PDF. (IEEE) A software item which is the object of testing. See: abstraction. A dialog box displayed out of context, either as an indirect result of a task or as the result of a problem with a system or background process. encapsulation. A method for handling constantly changing data. Transitional screen image that appears as a program is in the process of launching. error detection. A device, usually equipped with a CRT display and keyboard, used to send and receive information to and from a computer via a communication channel. The CRC is the result of a calculation on the set of transmitted bits by the transmitter which is appended to the data. pseudocode. (NIST) A specification that documents the requirements of a system or system component. testing, interface. Each layer, in itself, is not that complicated. risk assessment. MIL-STD-882C, Military Standard System Safety Program Requirements, 19JAN1993. Intended primarily for use in solving technical problems in mathematics, engineering, and science. This technique is often called stress testing. testing, exhaustive. In control panel items, a hub page presents high-level choices, such as the most commonly used tasks (as with task-based hub pages) or the available objects (as with object-based hub pages). Disks can be hard [fixed] or flexible [removable] and different sizes. extremal test data. computer instruction set. A window frame option characterized by translucence, helping users focus on content and functionality rather than the interface surrounding it. (NIST) A description of required documentation indicating its scope, content, format, and quality. digital-to-analog converter. Docking a child window converts it to a pane. See: source program, programming language. system integration. Digits are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, & F. This is a convenient form in which to examine binary data because it collects 4 binary digits per hexadecimal digit; e.g., decimal 15 is 1111 in binary and F in hexadecimal. underflow. transaction. Failure Modes and Effects Criticality Analysis. code walkthrough. An assistive technology that enables users with visual impairments to interpret and navigate a user interface by transforming visuals to audio. Types include addressing exception, data exception, operation exception, overflow exception, protection exception, underflow exception. (IEEE) A representation of software created to facilitate analysis, planning, implementation, and decision making. (ANSI) A named component of a data element. (IEEE) A compiler that executes on one computer but generates assembly code or object code for a different computer. A collection of commands designed to work in conjunction with a menu bar. Performed when more than one software system is being integrated. test readiness review. CAD software may also be highly specialized for creating products such as printed circuits and integrated circuits. comparator. real time. See also: properties. (2) The result of the process in (1). A federal agency under the Department of Commerce, originally established by an act of Congress on March 3, 1901 as the National Bureau of Standards. (NBS) A selection technique in which test data are chosen to lie along "boundaries" of the input domain [or output range] classes, data structures, procedure parameters, etc. A user input error relating to a single control. The design industry is filled with acronyms and industry-specific jargon. (1) (IEEE) The complete set of instructions recognized by a given computer or provided by a given programming language. 4.2!Approach to System Architecture and Design 39! See: kilobyte, megabyte, gigabyte. (1) (ISO) A shared boundary between two functional units, defined by functional characteristics, common physical interconnection characteristics, signal characteristics, and other characteristics, as appropriate. Syn: code trace, control flow trace. (1) (ISO) a group of related data elements treated as a unit. See: test case. side effect. Contrast with modulate. Contrast with code audit, code inspection, code review. touch screen. data bus. See: instrumentation; testing, assertion. Up to seven SCSI devices can be linked to a single SCSI port. It is a combination of transistors on a single chip connected to complementary digital circuits. application program. This makes the source code harder to understand, thus increasing the chance of introducing errors during program development and maintenance. Personas are constructed out of well-understood, highly specified data about real people. test item. (1) (NIST) Testing of a module for typographic, syntactic, and logical errors, for correct implementation of its design, and for satisfaction of its requirements. check summation. data item. It uses CRC error correction and is effective in delay-induced satellite transmission. See: FMEA, FMECA, FTA, software hazard analysis, software safety requirements analysis, software safety design analysis, software safety code analysis, software safety test analysis, software safety change analysis. Therefore, avoid using a shortcut key as the only way to access a particular operation. A structured software design technique, breaking a system into components to facilitate design and development. (NIST) Testing to satisfy the criterion that each statement in a program be executed at least once during program testing. See: utility software. See: assertion checking, instrumentation. (NIST) (1) A specification written and approved in accordance with established standards. (IEEE) Software maintenance performed to improve the performance, maintainability, or other attributes of a computer program. A record of change can be a written document or a database. Design Elements: Line 2. feasibility study. A small pop-up window that concisely describes the object being pointed to, such as descriptions of toolbar controls, icons, graphics, links, Windows Explorer objects, Start menu items, and taskbar buttons. computer aided design. software safety change analysis. The impacts of the environment on this analysis can include such items as the location and relation of clocks to circuit cards, the timing of a bus latch when using the longest safety-related timing to fetch data from the most remote circuit card, interrupts going unsatisfied due to a data flood at an input, and human reaction time. A collection of basic window commands, such as move, size, maximize, minimize, and close, available from the program icon on the title bar, or by right-clicking a taskbar button. conversational. (IEEE) A graph in which direction is implied in the internode connections. Usually, operating systems are predominantly software, but partial or complete hardware implementations are possible. See: embedded software. Another difference between RAM and ROM is that RAM is volatile, i.e. See: kilobyte. testing, interphase. (2) The compiler takes the finished source code listing as input and outputs the machine code instructions that the computer must have to execute the program. Typically one to four bytes long, depending on the make of computer. An unintended alteration of a program's behavior caused by a change in one part of the program, without taking into account the effect the change has on another part of the program. A manufacturer of computer hardware. By contrast, ordinary options and properties aren't crucial to the user's personal identification with a program. ANSI. regression analysis and testing. Methods include top-down, breadth-first, depth-first, bottom-up. HIPO. (IEEE) The process of intentionally adding known faults to those already in a computer program for the purpose of monitoring the rate of detection and removal, and estimating the number of faults remaining in the program. digital. (IEEE) A diagram that depicts the states that a system or component can assume, and shows the events or circumstances that cause or result from a change from one state to another. block. (1) (NBS) Use of an executable model to represent the behavior of an object. Contrast with simulation. interpreter. specification, formal. See: static analysis. An organization that coordinates the development of U.S. voluntary national standards for nearly all industries. A small, high speed memory circuit within a microprocessor that holds addresses and values of internal operations; e.g., registers keep track of the address of the instruction being executed and the data being processed. Don't capitalize to in an infinitive phrase (for example, How to Format Your Hard Disk), unless the phrase is the first word in the title. (IEEE) A diagram that identifies modules, activities, or other entities in a system or computer program and shows how larger or more general entities break down into smaller, more specific entries. A CPU existing on a single IC. box diagram. A maximized window that does not have a frame. input-process-output chart. (IEEE) In software engineering, a predefined sequence of computer instructions that is inserted into a program, usually during assembly or compilation, at each place that its corresponding macroinstruction appears in the program. As ADD, SUBTRACT, MULTIPLY, and DIVIDE are the primary operations of arithmetic, AND, OR, and NOT are the primary operations of Boolean Logic. handshake. (ANSI) A collection of interrelated data, often with controlled redundancy, organized according to a schema to serve one or more applications. (ANSI) (1) Everything that supports a system or the performance of a function. See: infeasible path. (IEEE) An element of configuration management, consisting of the evaluation, coordination, approval or disapproval, and implementation of changes to configuration items after formal establishment of their configuration identification. A reformation of a program by immediately relinking the entire program following the testing of each independent module. compatibility. specification, performance. A control specifically designed for textual input; allows users to view, enter, or edit text or numbers. A graphical presentation of commands optimized for efficient access. International Electrotechnical Commission, International Standard 812, Analysis Techniques for System Reliability - Procedure for Failure Mode and Effects Analysis [FMEA]. C++. A text box in which the input focus automatically moves to the next related text box as soon as a user types the last character. As a result, task panes have a more direct, contextual feel than dialog boxes. A testing technique using valid [normal or expected] input values or conditions. See: different software system analysis; testing, integration; testing, interface. Precisely 1024 K bits, 220 bits, or 1,048,576 bits. (IEEE) A software V&V task to ensure that the algorithms selected are correct, appropriate, and stable, and meet all accuracy, timing, and sizing requirements. See: anomaly, bug, defect, error, fault. Unlike property sheets, which also often contain tabs, tabbed dialog boxes are not used to display an object's properties. safety. This technique can also be applied to other software and configuration items. (IEEE) A subprogram that is called by other programs and subprograms. Approximately one million bytes. The application of code audit, inspection, review and walkthrough techniques to source code and other software documents usually by an individual [often by the person who generated them] and usually done informally. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. (ISO) Testing a new or an altered data processing system with the same source data that is used in another system. static analyzer. ASCII. ST-506. In Windows Vista and later, warning messages are typically displayed in task dialogs, include a clear, concise main instruction, and usually include a standard warning icon for visual reinforcement of the text. (1) (ISO) A named unit of data that, in some contexts, is considered indivisible and in other contexts may consist of data items. multi-programming. The devices and functions relating to transmission of data between the central processing system and remotely located users. (IEEE) Verification that the safety-critical portions of the design are correctly implemented in the code. testing, path. (IEEE) Analysis of the safety-critical design elements affected directly or indirectly by the change to show the change does not create a new hazard, does not impact on a previously resolved hazard, does not make a currently existing hazard more severe, and does not adversely affect any safety-critical software design element. is based on how much power will be passing through a specific component of the system. American National Standard for Information Systems, Dictionary for Information Systems, American National Standards Institute, 1991. Follow the traditional capitalization of keywords and other special terms in programming languages (for example, The printf Function, Using the EVEN and ALIGN Directives). See: measurable. audit trail. The portion of UI surfaces, such as dialog boxes, control panel items, and wizards, devoted to presenting options, providing information, and describing controls. See: testing, regression. See also: modeless. Note: This term is defined differently in various programming languages. (IEEE) Computer systems that perform more than one primary function or task are considered to be multipurpose. In User Account Control, elevated administrators have their administrator privileges. Contrast with DAC [digital-to-analog converter]. For example, Programs and Ease of Access are two control panel items. verify. configurable, off-the-shelf software. Architectural Design - The architectural design is the highest abstract version of the system. Originally developed for IBM mainframes, there have been many implementations created for mini and micro computer database applications. See: object program. system manager. (NIST) The property that all necessary parts of the entity are included. Analysis of the known or anticipated need for a product, system, or component to assess the degree to which the requirements, designs, or plans can be implemented. Programming the chip consists of sending an electrical current of a specified size through each link which is to be changed to the alternate state. Syn: accident. Federal Information Processing Standards [FIPS] Publication 101, Guideline For Lifecycle Validation, Verification, and Testing of Computer Software, 1983. See: anomaly, bug, error, exception, fault. hard copy. It identifies the software as a system with many components interacting with each other. byte. (IEEE) A control flow diagram consisting of a rectangle that is subdivided to show sequential steps, if-then-else conditions, repetition, and case conditions. It is a process of collecting and interpreting facts, identifying the problems, and decomposition of a system into its components.System analysis is conducted for the purpose of studying a system or its parts in order to identify its objectives. A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M |, N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z. Like regular tooltips, enhanced tooltips may provide the shortcut key for the command. Syn: Chapin chart, Nassi-Shneiderman chart, program structure diagram. For example, notifications and the Consent UI for User Access Control are out-of-context UI. unit. The Consent UI dialog is used to elevate administrators to elevated status only when necessary. Analyze identified relationships for correctness, consistency, completeness, and accuracy. Syn: indicator. Syn: white-box testing, glass-box testing, logic driven testing. Xmodem-1K improves speed by transmitting 1024 byte blocks. testing, operational. Syn: data contamination. assembler. testing, stress. event table. arithmetic underflow. A type of touch interaction in which input corresponds directly to how the object being touched would react naturally to the action in the real world. See: software review. This causes the "fuse to blow", opening that link. See also: maximize, minimize. comment. (2) A point of communication between two or more processes, persons, or other physical entities. American National Standards Institute. The TELENET protocol provides a terminal emulation capability that allows a user to interact with any other type of computer in the network. waterfall model. Can be proved or confirmed by examination or investigation. (IEEE) A routine that returns control to the program or subprogram that called it. (IEEE) A table used to show sets of conditions and the actions resulting from them. Determining the exact nature and location of a program error in order to fix the error, to identify and fix other similar errors, and to initiate corrective action to prevent future occurrences of this type of error. bubble chart. (ANSI) Pertaining to a device that allows a user to interact with a computer system by touching an area on the surface of the device with a finger, pencil, or other object, e.g., a touch sensitive keypad or screen. (2) A functional programmable unit that consists of one or more associated processing units and peripheral equipment, that is controlled by internally stored programs, and that can perform substantial computations, including numerous arithmetic operations, or logic operations, without human intervention. A technology for writing programs that are made up of self-sufficient modules that contain all of the information needed to manipulate a given data structure. A unit of user activity, often represented by a single UI surface (such as a dialog box), or a sequence of pages (such as a wizard). (2) (ISO) To design, write, and test programs. Syn: development standards, programming standards. (1) To separate into elemental parts or basic principles so as to determine the nature of the whole. terabyte. reliability assessment. See: release. If the band’s name is the most essential information, place it in the center or make it the bigge… A methodology for planning experiments so that data appropriate for [statistical] analysis will be collected. software. measure. Geneva, Switzerland. (ISO) A violation of data integrity. demodulate. condition coverage. operating system. modular software. The interpreter must be resident in the computer each time a program [source code file] written in an interpreted language is executed. For example, a notification can be used for an event that users can safely ignore at first. For example, playing an audio or video is a special experience for a media player. A warm boot means restarting the computer while it is powered-up. (IEEE) A language used to express computer programs. Of intended testing activities Commerce, National Institute of standards complete re-release of a system or computer.. 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Performance requirements various programming languages of words and terms host program is changed otherwise Modifying the content encounter!