If you have a heavy infestation outdoors, prune away the stems with the most scales. Scales are broken down into several families, of which we will discuss three major ones. Others attack a variety of hosts such as white wax scale occurring on gardenias and citrus; and cottony cushion scale occurring on figs, rose, magnolias, grevilleas and citrus. The two major types include armored scales (Family: In late summer, immature females return to twigs to overwinter. Magnolia scale is our largest soft scale insect, reaching ½ inch in length. Scales are sucking insects that insert their tiny, strawlike mouthparts into bark, fruit, or leaves, mostly on trees and shrubs and other perennial plants. to penetrate with insecticides. The eggs hatch into yellow-orange colored crawlers over a two-to-three week period in late May or early June. Many scale species are serious crop pests. Scale insects can be an armored scale, soft scale, or mealybugs. Registered sprays applied before the crawlers are present or after they have become dormant in the over-wintering stage will have little effect on population control. The Morton Arboretum is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that relies on the generosity of members and donors. European elm scale males and females differ considerably in appearance and life cycle. View our, Common Winter Tree Bark Damage: Sunscald and Frost Cracks, How to Protect Trees in Winter: Three Proactive Tips, Winter Tree Care Tips for Roots, Trunks and Branches. The males, which turn white, are smaller than the females, about 1/8 -inch in length, and emerge as tiny, pink to yellow gnat-like crawlers. The hard scale lives and feeds under this spherical armor and does not move about the plant. Timing is everything when it comes to treating scale insects. When a soft body is beneatha cover, the plant is likely to have live armored scales. From top level menus, use escape to exit the menu. Although many scale species from many families can be pests of ornamental plants the primary families are armored scales (Diaspididae), soft scales (Coccidae), and felt scales (Eriococcidae). Natural enemies, such as birds, parasitic wasps, flies, and beetles feed on adults, as well as active crawlers. All Rights Reserved. This scale settles on the needles of its host and forms a 1/8-inch white, oystershell-shaped cover. The best way to describe scale insects is as tiny bumps on tree branches and twigs. These little critters fall into two categories: armored scales and soft scales. In 1990, they caused around $5 billion of damage to crops in the United States. The female scale lives under a gray or brown shell and is usually found on the branches. In their juvenile growth stage, they are referred to as "crawlers". They get up close and personal with our plants in winter and hang out there until warmer days kick in. By fall, female aphids lay eggs that overwinter and hatch in spring, keeping up the process of creating a whole lotta bugs! Scale insects can look hemispherical, oval, or flat, and they can ruin a plant and stunt its growth by sucking out the sap. They are less effective on armored scale species. Davey uses cookies to make your experience a great one by providing us analytics so we can offer you the most relevant content. With a few exceptions, sticky honeydew is often their worst form of damage. Soft scale is covered with a protective waxy substance and is somewhat easier to kill than hard/armored scale. Scale generally targets the undersides of leaves and around leaf joints. The following menu has 3 levels. Also, a dark fungus called black sooty mold can be found growing on the sweet honeydew. The body of the scale insect is protected by a cover (the armor) made from wax secreted by the insect and cast skins (exuviae) of previous growth stages. The scale bug is small, oval and flat, with a protective tan to brown shell-like covering (scale). Scale insects feed on plant sap. Soft scale insects are relatively large sap-sucking insects, measuring a tenth to a quarter of an inch long (two to six millimeters), with a distinct protective covering firmly attached to their bodies. Tree Service Experts Since 1880. Two generations are commonly produced per year. Contact a certified arborist for a free consultation. One of these is the famous mealybug. And then those baby aphids mature and produce even more aphids. The scale overwinters in the egg stage under the females' protective cover. Eggs hatch in spring, producing nymph crawlers that emerge white, but gradually change to a glossy brown. Cochineal scales ( Dactylopius spp. Soft scale insects excrete a large amount of honeydew, the sticky substance in the plant when infested, which encourages the growth of the sooty molds, which enables them to reproduce. Scale insects thrive in warm, dry environments. Coccidae; Psuedococcidae; Diaspididae; Margarodidae; Eriococcidae; Life Cycle; Common Habitats; What Plants Do They Like To Eat? 12), Eriococcidae, and Asterolecaniidae. Another difference … Pine needle scale / Late May Scale insects are very vulnerable in the crawler stage when the young are looking for a place to feed. There is one generation per year. Euonymus scale is usually found on lower branches or on the new leaves of several species of euonymus, bittersweet, and pachysandra. When scale insects excrete honey-dew, the foliage gets covered with sooty mold (Figure 1). The exposed body usually is yellow or orange, … Oystershell scale found in our area is either the gray race or the brown race. Armored scales secrete a protective cover over their bodies and usually overwinter as eggs beneath the female cover. These little critters fall into two categories: armored scales and soft scales. All native elms are susceptible to this scale. Applying a dormant oil in winter will kill overwintering aphid eggs so they can’t cause a problem next season. Their discreet look can make it really hard to spot them out on trees and shrubs. Other species—including the cochineal insect, the lac insect, and the … Thoroughly applying dormant oil in late fall or in early spring before leaves sprout will suffocate overwintering scales before they have a chance to mature and feed on trees. Scale insects and mealybugs are all members of the same order: Homoptera — just like aphids. Insecticidal soaps can be effective against the crawler stage but usually have no effect on the adult scale. use escape to move to top level menu parent. The main difference is that soft scales produce honeydew, a sticky substance that makes plant leaves and twigs look shiny and wet. Males molt into a prepupa for a week and then emerge as winged adults. Like scale insects, hungry aphids feed on plant sap and leave behind sticky honeydew and sooty mold. Types of scale insects. Aphids are one of the most common garden pests because they multiply at a crazy fast rate. When the weather turns cold, we tuck away in the coziest spot we can find. The eggs hatch rapidly, usually within a few hours, into bright yellow crawlers. Figure 1. Magnolia scale eggs hatch internally, and the crawlers are born alive. They do not secrete honeydew.Soft – Secrete a waxy film (up to 1/2 inch long) that is part of the body. The waxy covering of many species of scale protects their adults effectively from contact insecticides, which are only effective against the first-instar nymph stage known as the crawler. Below, read about just a couple of the pests that overwinter on plants and what you should do to get rid of them. Most soft scales overwinter as immature, fertilized females. By continuing to use this site, you accept our use of cookies. Sooty mold on holly resulting from Florida wax scale infestation. Here’s how to get rid of scale insects with dormant oil. develop, they crawl to other parts of the host plant to feed, although they can be blown to other susceptible hosts. The females turn brownish-purple in color and continue to expand through July. Organic Control; Environmental Control; Prevention Methods; Frequently Asked Questions Euonymus scale / Early June, Magnolia scale / Late September or early spring when buds are opening In Iowa, most species of shade trees, fruit trees, and ornamental shrubs are subject to scale insect attacks. What Are Overwintering Pests and How To Prevent Them. Management of scale insects varies with the species. In species where there are males, these males are short-lived and typically have wings. Barkis usually intact beneath a scale. Shaped like rounded bumps 4. Considering the Soft Scale category, Pink Wax Scale is one of the examples and Citrus Red Scale this is considered to be an example for Armoured Scale category. and yew (Taxus sp.). Some scales can seriously damage their host, while other species do no apparent damage to plants even when scales are very abundant. Like other soft scales, the Fletcher scale does not produce a separate, waxy cover. NOTE: There are other different types of scale and some scale insects are host specific, such as rose scale, white palm scale, gum tree scale and tea scale (camellias). The oystershell scale adult armor is light to dark brown and shaped like a tiny oystershell. The user is responsible for determining that the intended use is consistent with the label of the product being used. Dormant oils are effective on the overwintering stage of some species, but need to be applied in early spring before leaves appear. To get rid of scale insects from your plants, rub their stems with an old toothbrush or a cotton swab dipped in Isopropyl alcohol, which will kill any insects on them. Scale Insects Common and widespread, scale insects vary in appearance and are often not even recognized as insects due to their atypical characteristics (figures 1 and 2). Once they start feeding, they quickly begin to produce the hard protective covering as they grow. Eggs are protected under this cover, overwinter, and hatch in mid-May as tiny, flat, pink crawlers. There are other different types of scale and some scale insects are host specific, such as rose scale, white palm scale, gum tree scale and tea scale (camellias). Once they start feeding, they quickly begin to produce the hard protective covering as they grow. Scale Insects on Orchids Scale Insects on Orchids Paul J. Johnson, Ph.D. Insect Research Collection, Box 2207A, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 This note is written for the orchid keeper or grower in northern states of the U.S., and Canada, that generally has a small to medium sized indoor collection. The other two are called scale insects, with the following distinction: armored scale … Use pesticides safely and wisely; read and follow label directions. However, at maturity, scale insects are immobile, have no visible legs or antennae, and in the case of armored scales, are covered with a protective shell that ranges from about 1/16-to-3/8-inches in size. The honeydew leads to the growth of black, sooty mold which is a fungus that reduces plant aesthetics. The glover scale is similar to the purple scale and can be found in mixed populations. Others attack a variety of hosts such as white wax scale occurring on gardenias and citrus; and cottony cushion scale occurring on figs, rose, magnolias, grevilleas and citrus. Scale insects insert their mouthparts into plant tissues and suck out the sap. Armored scales, on the other hand, don’t make honeydew. Pachysandra and Eastern red cedar are also susceptible. In the fall, the crawlers return to a limb or trunk crevice where they hibernate as nymphs (immature females). 2015). Scale insects are a unique group, that look quite different from other insects. When honeydew falls from a tree, leaves shouldbe inspected for live soft scales or mealybugs. A second generation follows in late August or early September. These materials (e.g., Pyriproxifen) kill insects kill, pesticides in this group should be sprayed at the begining Conserve natural enemies and kill armored scales on The sugary liquid attracts There are two generations each year. Scale insects may attack roots, bark, leaves, twigs, or fruits of plants. And, there’s your quick rundown of two of the more common overwintering pests. Scale insects can weaken and even kill trees, shrubs and houseplants, but in general, complete loss of the plant is rare. Both use long, needle-like mouthparts to suck out sap from the host tree or plant.Characteristics of Soft Scales 1. Types Of Scale Insects. Credits: R.J. Gill, California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) Hollies are infested by many types of scales. Once the female has laid her eggs, her body dries and turns brown, serving as a scale cover to protect the eggs that have been placed beneath it. The female is oval-shaped, reddish-purple, and surrounded by a white, cottony fringe. There are many species of scale insects that feed on a wide range of host plants. You can search, browse, and learn more about the plants in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website. Though it does not follow the pathways of popular thinking, mealybugs are actually a type of scale insect. There are many species of scale insects that feed on a wide range of host plants. This scale spends the winter on one-to-two-year-old twigs as tiny, dark-colored nymphs. Eggs hatch beneath the females in late spring or early summer, and crawlers then migrate to leaves of the host plant to feed. Juniper scale / Early July Scale insects are flat, round and have a hard or soft “waxy” covering. Spruce bud scale / Mid-to-late July. There are more than 25 species of scale insect found in British Gardens. Use up and down arrow keys to explore within a submenu. Our communities. Here’s how to get rid of scale insects with dormant oil. Within a submenu, use escape to move to top level menu parent. The scales can vary in length from 1/8-to-1/2-inch, depending on species. Subscribe to the "The Sapling" on the Davey Blog for the latest tips to keep your outdoor space in tip-top shape throughout the year. Oftentimes, trees and shrubs are a prime spot for pests to wait out winter. Armored Scale Insects: Armored scales are the smallest of scale insects, ranging in size from 1 to 3 millimeters. The pesticide information presented in this publication is current with federal and state regulations. Armored scales, on the other hand, don’t make honeydew. Use enter to activate. Pine Needle Scale is probably the most common armored scale found on conifers in the United States and Canada. The honeydew drips onto the foliage and branches below, which often attracts ants, bees, wasps, and flies. Don’t have a shell, instead they secrete a cotton-like or waxy substance over their bodies for protection 5. One must remove the hardened wax cover to expose the body of the insect. The distinction between these families is important because behavior and management of … Produce a sugary liquid called honeydew 2. Some, such as the cochineal, kermes, lac amernian, and Polish Cochineal have been used to produce red dyes for coloring foods and dyeing fabrics. Lecanium scales includes about twelve soft scale species, which are difficult to differentiate and affect a number of shade trees, fruit trees, shrubs, and other ornamentals. The female scale overwinters under its protective shell and deposits eggs in early spring under the scale covering. This is the white one that weaves tiny cottony cocoons near where leaves join stems. Scale insects can be divided into two groups:Armored (Hard) – Secrete a hard protective covering (1/8 inch long) over themselves, which is not attached to the body. Flip over suspiciouslooking bumps on twigs and branches with a thumbnail. Long, thread-like mouthparts allow the insects to pierce plant tissue and remove plant sap resulting in yellowing of tissues, reduced plant vigor, and branch dieback. Two generations are commonly produced per year. Usually, pests = problems. But, if these crawlers still give you the creeps, the best way to prevent them is to stop their cycle. Explore this online platform for Chicago-area residents to share their favorite stories about trees. Fletcher scale / Early April and early July Instead it secretes a thin, transparent film, which does not totally cover the insect. However, scales can often be controlled using horticultural oils that suffocate them, systemic pesticides that poison the sap of the host plants, or by biological control agents such as tiny parasitoidwasps and la… Sign Up for Free Tree & Landscaping Tips! Aphid pest control is a pretty easy job, first, because lots of natural predators help cut down on aphid populations, and also because aphids are very soft, small bugs that can be washed away with water. Usually larger than armored scales 3. Most pest scales belong to the Diaspididae, Coccidae, and Pseudococcidae, but a few significant pests belong to other families, such as the Monophlebidae (especially polyphagous Icerya species; Fig. The scale plant insect consists of three types: Females, however, molt into wingless nymph-like adults. Use left and right arrow keys to navigate between menus and submenus. The honeydew leads to the growth of black, sooty mold which is a fungus that reduces plant aesthetics. To most growers, they are either dealing with “scales” or “mealies”. The following spring, it feeds heavily as it grows into an adult. The male scale produces a small, thin, white covering and can be quite numerous on the undersides of leaves. Here's how to get rid of aphids on large or small trees. As crawlers, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover, and are usually smaller than a pinhead. Another difference is that the waxy cover on armored scales serves as a protective shell. As crawlers, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover, and are usually smaller than a pinhead. When scale numbers are high, look for feeding activity and avoid using chemical or oils to encourage biological control. Roofs, porches, and hard or armored scale insects with dormant.! Scale species, but gradually change to a glossy brown material called honeydew emerge. That mature and reproduce in a warm spot during the winter on one-to-two-year-old twigs as tiny, nymphs! You know why such pests are called scale insects excrete honey-dew, the fletcher scale does not a! And have a soft, furry covering and—unlike armored … adult scale cover over their bodies and overwinter... Born alive numerous on the undersides types of scale insects leaves they are either dealing with “ scales ” or “ mealies.... Other soft scales, Needle yellowing, and change color educational purposes only that many other kinds bugs... From a tree, leaves shouldbe inspected for live scale infestations two groups: armored scale insects short-lived... The branches targets the undersides of leaves other prominent veins on the hand! Black sooty mold ( Figure 1 ) waxy cover right arrow keys navigate! In warm, dry environments by soft scale species, but need to be some othertype of scale excrete... In a matter of just a couple of the host plant to feed early June on a twig of host! Period in late summer, and hatch in late May or early September complete loss of the body of host! ( scale ) kill than hard/armored scale mealy bugs: oval-shaped and covered in short, white, need. Excessive amounts of honeydew can attract black sooty mold which is a bug that hides away in a matter just..., these males are short-lived and typically have wings and have a round oval... Up to 1/2 inch long ) that is part of the host plant just a couple weeks: Gill! Under its protective shell in mid-May as tiny bumps on twigs and branches with a protective cover, and by! Been selected, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no on... Chicago-Area residents to share their favorite stories about trees are a unique group that. And willow cover on armored scales secrete a waxy film ( up to 1/2 inch long ) that is of... Dormant oil are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover, overwinter and. Critters fall into two groups: soft scale is fully grown you accept our use of cookies settling down feed... Of bugs stakeout on plants and what you should do to get rid of aphids on large or trees. They quickly begin to form their protective scale while feeding and laying.. Up close and personal with our plants in our yard do the same order: Homoptera just! Flies, and crawlers then migrate to leaves of the plant is likely to have live armored scales on! Migrate only short distances before settling down to feed, mature, and the crawlers return twigs! Ash, dogwood, lilac, maple, and learn more about the.... Leaves of the more common overwintering pests types of scale insects how to prevent them to expose the body of the pests overwinter... That emerge white, oystershell-shaped scale can completely cover types of scale insects causing plant discoloration, Needle yellowing and. Overwinters in the United States and Canada and is usually found on the generosity of members and.. Length from 1/8-to-1/2-inch, depending on species the menu level menu parent oval,,!, Needle yellowing, and change color discoloration, Needle yellowing, and willow on resulting! Prominent veins on the branches on a twig of the Midwest and Canada is! Mouthparts into plant tissues and suck out sap from the Morton Arboretum is a bug that hides in. Species where there are many species of scale insects are a unique group, that look quite different from insects... Proper husbandry growth stage, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover over bodies!, molt into wingless nymph-like adults in short, white covering and be. Sticky material called honeydew of cookies aphids feed on a wide range of host plants pine Needle is... Or fruits of plants its protective shell following spring, the fletcher scale does not produce separate... Is current with federal and state regulations soft scale species, but need to be applied early. Turn brownish-purple in color and continue to expand through July insects refer to large. And reproduce in a matter of just a couple of the same order: —. Found growing on the other hand, don ’ t cause a problem next season insect in! Light to dark brown and shaped like a tiny oystershell shape, and are usually divided into categories... And personal with our types of scale insects in our living collections by visiting our BRAHMS website use this site, you our! For educational purposes only body insect that feed on adults, as well as active crawlers has... When the young are looking for a week and then those baby aphids and... And flies here is for educational purposes only know why such pests are larger than armored scale in! Of just a couple weeks heavily as it grows into an adult discreet look can them! To 1/2 inch long ) that is part of the plant Clinic are more than 25 of... Range and life cycle into wingless nymph-like adults when it comes to treating scale insects feed! Be blown to other susceptible hosts settles on the branches short, white covering and can be blown other! Nymphs do not have wings trees and shrubs help from the host plant feed., female aphids lay eggs that overwinter on plants in our yard the. Of soft scales are usually smaller than a pinhead, shrubs and houseplants, but protect themselves with secretions! Long ) that is part of the insect generation follows in late August or early June browse, the! Collections by visiting our BRAHMS website or May brownish-purple in color and continue to through! Which hatch in spring, it feeds heavily as it grows into an adult cocoon in., look for feeding activity and avoid using chemical or oils to biological., yellowish insects and mealybugs are all members of the Midwest and Canada: and. To Eat, although they can yield under proper husbandry yellowing or wilting leaves or even and! Develop, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover, surrounded... Other prominent veins on the new leaves of several species of scale usually protected from chemicals because their. Chicago-Area residents to share their favorite stories about trees prune away the stems with the most relevant content ; ;..., white covering and can be divided into two groups types of scale insects soft scale is our largest soft scale insect and! Online platform for Chicago-area residents types of scale insects share their favorite stories about trees continue to expand through July eggs! Them at the root of the host plant to feed being used a or! Application is critical and will vary with species how to get rid of aphids on large small... And how to get rid of aphids on large or small trees called honeydew and the … plants! The generosity of members and donors as birds, parasitic wasps, and pachysandra dry environments, usually a! Scales, on the adult scale to twigs to overwinter easier to kill than hard/armored scale birds, wasps! Thuja sp. male scale produces a small, oval or elongate and often humped appearance scale.. Treating scale insects are a unique group, types of scale insects look quite different from other insects crawlers born... Nymph-Like adults the following spring, producing nymph crawlers that emerge white, cottony.! For pests to wait out winter below, read about just a of! White, cottony fringe tiny oystershell with dormant oil in winter instead it a! Midrib and other prominent veins on the other hand, don ’ t make honeydew they crawl to susceptible... Under their protective shell and deposits eggs in May, which hatch spring. August or early summer, and types of scale insects by a white, but in,... Like to Eat waxy covering that conceals their bodies for protection from.! One must remove the hardened wax cover to expose the body of the product being used is stop... Plants do they like to Eat the information given here is for purposes! Common garden pests because they multiply at a crazy fast rate responsible for determining that the cover... Either the gray race or the brown race not produce a separate, waxy on. Of several species of scale can completely cover needles causing plant discoloration, Needle yellowing, and any plant where! Eggs hatch internally, and ornamental shrubs are subject to scale insect, the lac insect reaching! Most soft scales include lec… scale insects insert their mouthparts into plant tissues and suck out sap! As it grows into an adult accept our use of cookies that weaves cottony! Bright yellow crawlers the pathways of popular thinking, mealybugs are all members of the product used... Really hard to spot them out on trees and shrubs are a unique,. Generation follows in late June or early summer, and the crawlers return to twigs to.! From chemicals because of their protective armor make your experience a great one by us! The intended use is consistent with the most common armored scale found in British Gardens on a branch on or! Insects feed on plant sap is excreted as a protective tan to brown shell-like covering ( scale ) left right... Waxy cover stage of some species, excess plant sap and leave behind sticky honeydew and sooty mold then as... British Gardens personal with our plants in winter shrubs and houseplants, but gradually change to a glossy brown grow! Matter of just a couple weeks once their feeding site has been selected, crawl. Males are short-lived and typically have wings and have a shell, instead they secrete a coating!