Cultural measures: Successful establishment of earthworm populations is influenced by management of the site. 33-39. Holdsworth, Andrew R., Lee E. Frelich, Peter B. 8(4). The purported impacts of invasive earthworms are often varied between publications, and different soil types and soil layers may be affected differently by earthworm invasion. Because it is widely known, Lumbricus terrestris goes under a variety of common names. 1666-1677. Ventral. Regnier, E., Harrison, S. K., Liu, J., Schmoll, J. T., Edwards, C. A., Arancon, N., Holloman, C. 2008. Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), Review: Lee. Invasive earthworm species and nitrogen cycling in remnant forest patches. NCBI Taxonomy: a comprehensive update on curation, resources and tools. 536-544. It was developed as part of the global initiative on invasive species led by the erstwhile Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP) in 2000. Distribution and impacts of invasive earthworms in Canadian forest ecosystems. Effects of the herbicide isoproturon on survival, growth rate, and protein content of mature earthworms (, Nuutinen, Visa. Interactions of an introduced shrub and introduced earthworms in an Illinois urban woodland: Impact on leaf litter decomposition. The biggest individuals can be up to 35 cm in length when moving. What does lumbricus mean? Dorsal. 39(5). They come to the surface to feed on litter and pull it down to their burrows, depositing casts of mixed organic and mineral material on the soil surface (Addison, 2009). Litter decomposition in earthworm-invaded northern hardwood forests: Role of invasion degree and litter chemistry. Chemical control: Where non-native earthworms are not well established or are found in discrete populations, the use of chemical treatments to eradicate undesirable worms may be successful. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. Nat. Commercial trade in Annelids. Costello, David M. & Gary A. 13(8). Thus earthworms in different functional groups have different impacts on the soil (Frelich et al., 2006; Hale et al., 2008). 9, Pages 801�811. DNAS-20A-216413. 2008. 29-52. Su�rez, Esteban R., Timothy J. Fahey, Joseph B. Yavitt, Peter M. Groffman, Patrick J. Lamberti., 2008. Bohlen, P.J., Scheu, S., Hale, C.M., McLean, M.A., Migge, S., Groffman, P.M., Parkinson, D. 2004. Suarez, Esteban R.; Pelletier, Derek M.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Groffman, Peter M.; Bohlen, Patrick J.; Fisk, Melany C., 2004. 1008-1016. Prepared for U.S. 14(4). 8(7). The Earthworm. Biological Invasions. Parkinson., 2006. Oecologia (Berlin). Native and introduced earthworms (Oligochaeta) of British Columbia, Canada. Management and regulatory strategies should also take into account the fact that some earthworm species, such as Lumbricus rubellus have larger impacts than others. (I know that's a bit redundant, but at least it makes sense!) Megadrilogica. Analysis of Customs Trade Data to Characterize Importation of Live Bait. 553-564. – 8 cm., with some members of this species even growing to 35 cm. Entry name i: GLB4_LUMTE Accession i: P13579 Primary (citable) accession number: P13579: Entry history i: Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 1, 1990: Last sequence update: January 1, … Reference: How to cite this resource - Schoch CL, et al. Species; Additional images; Click here to support NatureSpot by making a donation - small or large - your gift is very much appreciated. 12(6). Earthworms are all in the lumbricus genus, which makes the first part of this animal's scientific name; the second part, or species name, varies. Linnaeus, C. 1758 ... English: Common Earthworm español: Lombriz de tierra eesti: Harilik vihmauss euskara: Lur-zizare suomi: Kastemato ... For more multimedia, look at Lumbricus terrestris on Wikimedia Commons. Lumbricid earthworm invasion in the Carpathian Mountains and some other sites in Romania. Lumbricus contains some of the most commonly seen earthworms in Europe. The authors suggest restrictions on transportation of soils from infested areas to non-infested areas, unless a special permit certifying that the material is free from earthworm propagules has been granted. The Lob Worm is Britain's largest earthworm. 2003. BioScience September 2002, Vol. The scientific name for Night Crawlers derives as follows: So, Lumbricus terrestrisis "earthworm of the earth". 7(1). Impact of an exotic earthworm on seed dispersal of an indigenous US weed. Non-native earthworms in riparian soils increase nitrogen flux into adjacent aquatic ecosystems Oecologia (2008) 158:499�510, Costello, David M. & Gary A. Lumbricus rubellus operates in two categories, 1) epigeic which inhabit and feed at the soil surface and 2) endogeic which live and feed in the mineral horizons below the organic (LFH) layer. Exotic Ecosystem Engineers Change the Emergence of Plants from the Seed Bank of a Deciduous Forest Ecosystems. Eisenhauer, Nico; Partsch, Stephan; Parkinson, Dennis; Scheu, Stefan, 2007. 28-44. L. rubellus) species arriving first as they are able to utilise undisturbed forest floors. Eisenhauer, Nico; Straube, Daniela; Johnson, Edward A.; Parkinson, Dennis; Scheu, Stefan. Lumbricus terrestris is a common earthworm, or nightcrawler, which is native to Europe and has recently received attention for its invasion of North America. There are nearly 300 species with some of the most common being Lumbricus rubellus, Lumbricus castaneus, Lumbricus festivus, Lumbricus badensis, and Lumbricus terrestris (Encyclopedia of Life 2013). Similarly, transport of cocoons and earthworms via vehicular transport is a major pathway for introduction to new locations. When covalently bound, it is conjugated to target proteins via an isopeptide bond either as a monomer (monoubiquitin), a polymer linked via different Lys residues of the ubiquitin (polyubiquitin chains) or a linear polymer linked via the initiator Met of the ubiquitin (linear polyubiquitin chains). The Global Invasive Species Database was developed and is managed by the Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) of the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Define lumbricus. The Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Acanthodrilidae, Eudrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Ocenerodrilidae, and Sparganophilidae) of East Texas, USA. Name . For a detailed account of the impacts of invasive earthworms please read Earthworms Impacts Information. The first noticeable impacts tend to be physical disruption of the stratified humus layers on the forest floor. Am. Oikos. Meaning of lumbricus. Suggested types of information needed to determine ecological risk include mode of reproduction, number of embryos per cocoon, ecological “strategy”, and temperature, pH and moisture requirements (Callaham et al., 2006). Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 (accepted name) Synonyms: - Common names: Common name Transliteration Language Country; common earthworm: Common earthworm: English-dew worm: Dew worm: English-earthworm: Earthworm: English-lob worm: Lob worm: English-squirreltail worm: The influence of invasive earthworms on indigenous fauna in ecosystems previously uninhabited by earthworms. These quarantines would provide time to determine the ecological risk posed by the introduction of a given earthworm species into particular systems. Dominance of an invasive earthworm in native and non-native grassland ecosystems. Biol Invasions (2006) 8:1257�1273. 1053-1066. Biol Invasions (2006) 8:1219�1222. Non-native invasive earthworms as agents of change in northern temperate forests.Front Ecol Environ 2004; 2(8): 427�435. Regional Extent of an Ecosystem Engineer: Earthworm Invasion in Northen Hardwood Forests. Earthworms are often classified based on their activity and feeding type, which affects their impacts on the soil (Bouché, 1977 in Addison, 2009). Biol Invasions (2009) 11:1045�1052. Lob Worm Description. Damoff, George Alan; Reynolds, John Warren, 2009. DEC 2008. Keller et al. Ecological Applications: Vol. Disclaimer: The NCBI taxonomy database is not an authoritative 9(6). OCT 2009. This species is less widely distributed than other exotic species. In North America, the term nightcrawler (or vitalis) is also used. The morphologically identical worm Enterionherculeum Savigny (1826) was proposed by some to be the first validly established member of the genus Lumbricus, and the name L. herculeus was in favour with some taxonomists for quite some time (Tetry, 1937; Bouche, 1972). Can be present in potted or ball and burlap nursery stock, and sod. 15(4). L. terrestris) are usually last to arrive (James & Hendrix, 2004 in Addison, 2009). However the main effect of earthworms is to consume litter, and incorporate it into deeper soil layers, thus causing mixing of the A and O soil horizons. 154-165. In Canada, it is also called the dew worm, or "Grandaddy Earthworm". Exotic earthworm invasion increases soil carbon and nitrogen in an old-growth forest in southern Quebec. Preferred name: Lumbricus terrestris ; ... Name Language; common earthworm: English: nightcrawler: English: Regenwurm: German: Propose photo. McLean, M. A., S. Migge-Kleian & D. 25-36. The common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) resembles a cylindrical tube, with an average length of about 7 cm. 1026-1036. Alt Name. Nonlinearity of effects of invasive ecosystem engineers on abiotic soil properties and soil biota. January 2004. 36-39. Thank you. Well-formed: Y Recommended: N NBN ID code: NBNSYS0000022358. The genus Lumbricus contains some of the most commonly seen earthworms throughout Europe (Encyclopedia of Life 2013). The reddish-gray-colored common earthworm, often called a night crawler in the United States, is familiar to anyone with a fishing rod or a garden. A & Alam, S. K., 2005. Refers to the tail region. Similarly, some forests will be more susceptible to invasion than others. Night-crawling - On the reproduction and ecology of the earthworm, Nuutinen, Visa, Butt and Kevin R. 1997. Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus 1758 Species recognized by EOL Dynamic Hierarchy 0.9 , Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Hierarchy , GBIF classification , and Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species Callaham et al. The reddish-gray colored body of the earthworm is segmented, and the vital organs are present in particular segments. Ubiquitin exists either covalently attached to another protein, or free (unanchored). Cameron, Erin K.; Bayne, Erin M.; Clapperton, M. Definition of lumbricus in the Definitions.net dictionary. Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758. includes: Lumbricus sp. Common Name. These are: 1) Replace the species currently sold with earthworm species that are unlikely to establish populations, e.g. Invasibility of experimental grassland communities: the role of earthworms, plant functional group identity and seed size. In several Germanic languages, it is called variants of "rain worm", for example in German Gemeiner Regenwurm ("common rain worm") or in DanishStor regnorm ("large rain worm"). Bohlen., 2002. 1621-1629. In Britain, it is primarily called the common earthworm or lob worm (though the name is also applied to a marine polychaete). 52, No. Moore., 2006. Marshall, Valin G.; Fender, William M., 2007. For example, synergistic effects of the invasive weed buckthorn and exotic earthworms could be minimized by early control measures to limit the weed (Heneghan et al, 2006). 509-518. Fisheries [Fisheries]. A preliminary survey of the oligochaete fauna of the Yukon Territory, Canada. Invasion patterns of Lumbricidae into the previously earthworm-free areas of northeastern Europe and the western Great Lakes region of North America. Teale, Chelsea L., 2007. Thus the main technique for managing invasions is prevention of introductions, via various pathways (Cameron, Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for, Addison, J. Often multiple earthworm species inhabit areas of forest, and studies suggest that impacts are greater when earthworms from more than one functional group occur together (Hale et al., 2005; Hale et al., 2008). Biological and physical effects of non-native earthworms on nitrogen cycling in riparian soils. Genbank common name: common earthworm NCBI BLAST name: segmented worms Rank: species Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Jun 2005. A., 2009. MAY 2007. From Bait Shops to the Forest Floor: Earthworm Use and Disposal by Anglers. Common Earthworm - Lumbricus terrestris. At about a third of the worms length is a smooth band known as the clitellum. 2009. Reproduction of the earthworm. 2004. 87(7). Small projection that hangs over the mouth. In th… Lumbricus terrestris (Common earthworm) Taxonomy - Lumbricus terrestris (Common earthworm) (SPECIES) Dendrobaena octaedra and Dendrodrilus rubidus are epigeic species, which inhabit and feed at the soil surface. Exotic earthworm effects on hardwood forest floor, nutrient availability and native plants: a mesocosm study. Tiunov, A.V., Hale, C.M., Holdsworth, A.R. Lamberti., 2009. Spatial and temporal dynamics of exotic earthworm communities along invasion fronts in a temperate hardwood forest in south-central New York (USA). For example, according to National Geographic, the common earthworm is lumbricus terrestris, while according to the Fairfax County Public School system, the red earthworm is known as lumbricus rubellus. MAR 2008. Bohlen., 2006a. Changes in hardwood forest understory plant communities in response to European earthworm invasions. They are found abundantly in North America, Europe and western Asia. in the trash where landfill conditions are likely to kill them (Keller et al., 2007) or to prohibit the abandonment of live bait (Cameron et al., 2007). Earthworms (, Proulx, Nick., 2003. Reich., 2006. JUL 2006. Res. 129(1-2). Ecoscience. Hale, Cindy M., Frelich, Lee E., Reich, Peter B., Pastor, John. 113-140. names cc-by-nc-sa-3.0 Lumbricus terrestris(Earthworm) is a species of segmented wormsin the family earthworms. Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France. The common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) we have today originated in Europe and was introduced with imported plants and soil a few hundred years ago. Thus preventing its introduction to new areas is important, even if those areas are already infested with other species (Hale et al., 2006). Journal of Applied Ecology. 1637-1649. The genus has nearly 700 valid species. Pop, Victor V. and Pop, Adriana Antonio. For. 482-490. 2020: baaa062. Exotic earthworms are a particular problem in previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests of North America dominated by Acer, Quercus, Betula, Pinus and Populus (Frelich et al., 2006). Megadrilogica. 2006. 2009. 36: 845�854 (2006), Soil or sediment modification: modification of structure, Milcu, A., Schumacher, J., Scheu, S. 2006. Tree rings detect earthworm invasions and their effects in northern Hardwood forests. 2008. 3-7. Taxonomy. In Britain, it is primarily called the common earthworm or lob worm (though that name is also applied to a marine polychaete).In North America, the term nightcrawler (or vitalis) is also used.In Canada, it is also called the dew worm, or "Grandaddy Earthworm". 117(7). Szlavecz, Katalin; Sarah A. Placella; Richard V. Pouyat; Peter M. Groffman; Csaba Csuzdi; and Ian Yesilonis, 2006. Biological Invasions. Database (Oxford). 2006. However in forest ecosystems with few or no native earthworms, introduced species can have negative effects. Biol Invasions (2009) 11:59�79, Aira, Manuel, McNamara, Niall P., Piearce, Trevor G., Dominguez, Jorge. Posterior. Prostomium. Lumbricus definition: a member of a genus of worms of the same name, the most common of which is the common... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples ⁕Lumbricus terrestris has several common names, including common earthworm, nightcrawler, and dew worm. Common names. Soil Biology and Biochemistry Volume 41, Issue 10, October 2009, Pages 2230-2235. Butt, Kevin R., Nuutinen, Visa. EARTHWORMS (LUMBRICUS TERRESTRIS) EARTH WORM CHARACTERISTICS Earthworms are made up of many small segments known as ‘annuli’. SEP 2009. Biol Invasions (2006) 8:1275�1285. earthworm in English green crawler in language. Earthworm invasion into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests. E. Frelich, The University of Minnesota Center for Forest Ecology. Applied Soil Ecology 32 (2006) 54�62. Tree leaf litter composition and nonnative earthworms influence plant invasion in experimental forest floor mesocosms. May, 2001. 17, No. Effects of exotic earthworms on soil phosphorus cycling in two broadleaf temperate forests. Pedobiologia 50(6): 543-551. Lumbricus terrestris Taxonomy ID: 6398 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid6398) current name. This decision-making process allows for the quarantine of materials containing propagules of earthworms that have not been identified or widely introduced previously. Eisenhauer, Nico and Scheu, Stefan. Larson, Evan R.; Kipfmueller, Kurt F.; Hale, Cindy M.; Frelich, Lee E.; Reich, Peter B. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1555 on 20-12-2020. The earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) of Wyoming, USA. Ecological Applications: Vol. Mosleh, Yahia Y., Paris-Palacios, Severine, Couderchet, Michel, Vernet, Guy. 1998. Jones., 2009. 2010. Suarez, Esteban R.; Fahey, Timothy J.; Groffman, Peter M.; Yavitt, Joseph B.; Bohlen, Patrick J., 2006b. They are also know as "dew worms", probably because they are found more commonly on nights when the ground is moist from a dew or rain. It has invaded areas of Canada, the northern United States and parts of northeastern Europe. 1099-1110. Human-facilitated invasion of exotic earthworms into northern boreal forests. Frelich, Lee E.; Cindy M. Hale; Stefan Scheu; Andrew R. Holdsworth; Liam Heneghan; Patrick J. Bohlen and Peter B. White-tailed deer (, Keller, P. Reuben; Annie, N. Cox; Christine Van Loon; David, M. Lodge; Leif-Matthias Herborg and John Rothliseberger., 2007. relevant scientific literature for the most reliable information. 12. [Full text] [PubMed], Translation table 5 (Invertebrate Mitochondrial), Go to NCBI genomic BLAST page for Lumbricus terrestris, WebScipio - eukaryotic gene identification, diArk - a resource for eukaryotic genome research. lumbricus synonyms, lumbricus pronunciation, lumbricus translation, English dictionary definition of lumbricus. Lumbricus herculeus (Savigny, 1826) Species: Lumbricus improvisus Zicsi, 1963 Species: Lumbricus klarae Zicsi & Csuzdi, 1999 Species: Lumbricus meliboeus Rosa, 1884 Species: Lumbricus polyphemus Fitzinger, 1833 Species: Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister, 1843 – red marshworms : Species: Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 – nightcrawler, dew worm Thus construction of fewer roads, restricting the amount of traffic on roads or reclaiming roads where possible would minimize spread of earthworms (Cameron & Bayne, 2009). Because it is widely known, L. terrestris goes under a variety of common names. Setae. Reynolds, John Warren., 2001.The earthworms of South Carolina (Oligochaeta: Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Ocnerodrilidae and Sparganophilidae) Megadrilogica. 11(1). Lumbricus Terrestris. These annuli are ridged and covered in minute hairs that grip the soil allowing the worm to move as it contracts its muscles. Midl. 45(6). This causes extreme reduction of the litter layer and changes in nutrient concentrations and cycling in the soil. January 2003. AUG 2007. Preferred name. Reynolds, John Warren., 2003. 16, No. Reich., 2007. 1997. 30, no. Scientists studying forests and forest conservationists are ambivalent about the common earthworm. Wironen, M. and T.R. Refers to the under surface. L. terrestris is a deep-burrowing anecic earthworm, which create permanent vertical burrows in the mineral layer. 6, pp. Biol Invasions (2006) 8:1223�1234. Anterior. J. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. Exotic Earthworm Invasions in North America: Ecological and Policy Implications. Ecology (Washington D C). Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758 References . Megadrilogica. Karberg, Noah J. and Lilleskov, Erik A. Anecic species (e.g. Migge-Kleian, S., Mclean, M.A., Maerz, J.C., Heneghan, L. 2006. 37-48. Chemical control have been used in the management of golf courses. Earthworms are keystone detritivores that can act as “ecosystem engineers” and have the potential to change fundamental soil properties, with cascading effects on ecosystem functioning and biodiversity (Frelich, There are currently no effective methods to eradicate established earthworm populations without unacceptable non-target effects. Wyoming, USA C.M., Holdsworth, Andrew R. ; Frelich, the term nightcrawler ( vitalis... Along invasion fronts in a northern hardwood forests: role of earthworms: on! First noticeable impacts tend to be physical disruption of plant roots and mycorrhizal associations is also called the dew,... Could be adapted to prevent the spread of exotic earthworms on indigenous fauna in ecosystems previously uninhabited earthworms... Soil processes ( Hendrix & Bohlen, 2002 ) ( Oligochaeta: Acanthodrilidae Lumbricidae... In hardwood forest in south-central new York ( USA ) ( e.g been. 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And native Plants: a mesocosm study into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests microflora, microarthropods vegetation! Discarding unwanted live lumbricus terrestris common name ( 2020 ) species profile: Lumbricus terrestris ( earthworm is. ; Partsch, Stephan ; Parkinson, Dennis ; Scheu, Stefan are found abundantly in North America ecological. Transport of cocoons and earthworms via vehicular transport is a deep-burrowing anecic earthworm which. ( Lumbricus terrestris Taxonomy ID: 6398 ( for references in articles please use NCBI: txid6398 current... Are able to utilise undisturbed forest floors, Victor V. and pop, Adriana.! Length is a major pathway for introduction to new locations region of North America, and! On 20-12-2020 ; J�rn Gr�nvold ; Michael Nylandsted Larsen ; Hans-Ole Kraglund, and dew worm the. Rubellus ) species profile: Lumbricus sp unanchored ) preserving the economically important live trade of:. 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Pouyat ; Peter M.,! Terrestris Linnaeus, 1758. includes: Lumbricus terrestris Lumbricus translation, English dictionary definition of Lumbricus term. Valin G. ; Fender, William M., 2007 ), Review: Lee: National Information! In an old-growth forest in south-central new York ( USA ) be present particular... Identified or widely introduced previously Pouyat ; Peter M. Groffman, Patrick J a account. ; Fender, William M., Frelich, Lee E. Frelich, Lee E., Reich, Peter B Ecosystem... And Sparganophilidae ) Megadrilogica ), Review: Lee Travis & Robert H IUCN/SSC invasive Database. Consensus available, and sod earthworm on seed dispersal of an exotic earthworm in. Ecological and policy Implications, Ocenerodrilidae, and Hans-Peter Fagerholm., 2002 ; et... Su�Rez, Esteban R., Lee E. Frelich, Lee E. ; Reich, Peter B in many and! Comprehensive update on curation, resources and tools 35 cm Extent of an invasive earthworm species into systems... The reddish-gray colored body of the earth '' systems earthworms are made of... On nitrogen cycling in riparian soils biol invasions ( 2009 ) 11:59�79, Aira, Manuel, McNamara, P...., Issue 10, October 2009, Pages 2230-2235 nightcrawler, and dew worm, ``! Y., Paris-Palacios, Severine, Couderchet, Michel, Vernet, Guy, Peter B.,.... To new locations Andrew R., Lee E. Frelich, the University of Minnesota Center for forest Ecology influenced... Lumbricidae into the previously earthworm-free areas of Canada, the University of Minnesota Center for forest Ecology forest floors redundant... Earthworms in an old-growth forest in southern Quebec ( 2009 ) 11:59�79,,... Respiration ( exchange of air ) of cocoons and earthworms via vehicular transport is a smooth known... To European earthworm invasions in North America, Europe and western Asia phosphorus cycling in remnant forest.... Used in the soil allowing the worm to move as it contracts its muscles with earthworm species into systems... The latest scientific consensus available, and the western Great Lakes region of America... Lilleskov, Erik a nitrogen cycling in the mineral layer based on the forest floor, nutrient availability and Plants. - on the forest floor: earthworm use and Disposal by anglers effects in northern hardwood forests: role invasion! Which create permanent vertical burrows in the Carpathian Mountains and some other sites in.! Of segmented wormsin the family earthworms permanent vertical burrows in the mineral.... And western Asia ( NBII ) & IUCN/SSC invasive species Specialist Group ( ISSG,! A legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes introductions is believed to release. Isoproturon on survival, growth rate, and dew worm E.,,! Of golf courses commonly seen earthworms in Canadian forest ecosystems layers on the forest floor nutrient. Cylindrical tube, with epigeic ( e.g larson, Evan R. ; Frelich, Lee E.,,. Biological and physical effects of invasive earthworms in Europe on survival, growth rate, and the western Great region. D. rubidus ) or epi-endogeic ( e.g, Dominguez, Jorge oligochaete fauna of the impacts of invasive on..., Esteban R., Lee E. ; Reich, Peter B populations,.... In the management of golf courses Butt and Kevin R. 1997 Piearce Trevor! Or ball and burlap nursery stock, and dew worm ) species profile: Lumbricus terrestris ( )...

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